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Application Notes for Karl Fischer Titration

Determination of water content according to Karl Fischer is rapid, accurate and reliable. KF titration is therefore the method of choice in quality and in-process control, production and research & development.

Using the Karl Fischer titration with Aquastar® reagents, the water content of gases, liquids and solids can be determined easily and with a high degree of accuracy. Benefit from our broad range of KF applications to optimize your KF titration!

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Chemical Groups

Application Name Group
Acetaldehyde Aldehydes
Acetaldehyde diethyl acetal Carboxylic acids
Acetic acid Ketones
Acetone Ketones
Acetophenone Carboxylic acids
Acetylacetone, 2,4-Pentanedione Carboxylic acids
Acetylacetone, 2,4-Pentanedione Ketones
Acetylbenzoic acid Inorganic compounds
3-Acetylindole Amines
3-Acetylindole Ketones
3-Acetylpyridine Carboxylic acids
3-Acetylpyridine Ketones
Acetyl salicylic acid Ketones
Acids, aqueous Inorganic compounds
Acids, concentrated Carboxylic acids
Acrylic acid Polymers, plastics
Acrylic paint Carboxylic acids
Adipic acid Carboxylic acids
Alanine Esters of carboxylic acids
Alkyl-2-cyanoacrylate Inorganic compounds
Aluminium oxide Carboxylic acids
Amino acids Inorganic compounds
2-Aminoethanol, Ethanolamine Amines
2-Aminoethanol, Ethanolamine Phenols
4-Amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-Aminosalicylic acid Aldehydes
2-Aminophenol Amines
2-Aminopyridine Carboxylic acids
2-Aminopyridine Ketones
Ammonia, aqueous Inorganic compounds
Ammonium fluoride Inorganic compounds
Anhydrous milk fat Amines
Aniline Ethers
Antibiotics Aldehydes
Benzaldehyde Hydrocarbons
Benzene, gasoline Ketones
Benzil Ketones
Benzoin Ketones
Benzophenone Ketones
Benzoylacetic acid ethyl ester Alcohols
Benzoyl acetone, 1-Phenyl-1,3-butanedione Esters of carboxylic acids
Benzoyl acetone, 1-Phenyl-1,3-butanedione Ketones
2-Benzoylbenzoic acid Ethers
3-Benzoylpropionic acid Alcohols
Benzylacetone, 4-Phenyl-2-butanone Esters of carboxylic acids
Benzyl alcohol Ketones
Benzyl methyl ketone, Phenyl acetone Ketones
Bitumen Aldehydes
1-Bromine docecane, Dodecyl bromide Alcohols
Bromoacetaldehyde diethyl acetal Halogenated hydrocarbons
2-Bromoanisole, 1-Bromo-2-methoxybenzene Aldehydes
2-Bromobenzaldehyde Alcohols
2-Bromoethanol Alcohols
Bromoform, Tribromomethane Carboxylic acids
1-Butanol Alcohols
2-Butanol Ketones
3-Butin-1-ol Alcohols
3-Butin-1-ol Phenols
Butter Amines
Butylamine, 1-Aminobutane Aldehydes
Butyraldehyde, butanal Carboxylic acids
Capsules Halogenated hydrocarbons
Celecoxib Alcohols
Chewing gum Carboxylic acids
Chloroacetic acid Alcohols
Chlorobutanol-Hemihydrate Halogenated hydrocarbons
Chloroform, Trichloromethane Halogenated hydrocarbons
3-Chlorophenol Sulphurous compounds, org.
Cinnamon oils Carboxylic acids
Coffee extract (Instant coffee) Inorganic compounds
Cresols, Methyl phenols Alcohols
Cresols, Methyl phenols Phenols
Cyclohexane Hydrocarbons
Cyclohexane aldehyde, Cyclohexane carbaldehyde Aldehydes
1,3-Cyclohexanedione Amines
1,2-Cyclohexanedione Halogenated hydrocarbons
Cyclohexanol Alcohols
Cyclohexanone Ketones
Cyclohexene Hydrocarbons
Cyclohexylamine Amines
Cyclopentane Hydrocarbons
1-Decanol, decyl alcohol Alcohols
2-Decanone Alcohols
Diacetyl Ketones
4,4-Diaminodiphenylamine Carboxylic acids
1,3-Diaminopropane Ethers
Dibenzoylmethane, 1,3-Diphenyl-1,3-propanedion Ketones
Dichloroacetic acid Carboxylic acids
1,2-Dichloroethane, Ethylene chloride Alcohols
1,2-Dichloroethane, Ethylene chloride Phenols
Dichloromethane, methylene chloride Halogenated hydrocarbons
Dicyclohexylamine Amines
Diesel fuel Hydrocarbons
Diethanolamine Alcohols
Diethanolamine Amines
Diethylene glycol Alcohols
Diethyleneglycol monoethylether Alcohols
Diethyleneglycol monoethylether Ethers
Diethylenetriamine Amines
Diethyl ether Ethers
Dihexylketone Ketones
Dihydroxyacetophenone Alcohols
Dihydroxyacetophenone Ketones
1,2-Dihydroxybenzene, Pyrocatechol, Benzene-1,2-diol Ethers
Diisopropyl ether Ethers
4-(Dimethylamino)benzaldehyde Amines
2-(Dimethylamino)-ethanol, N,N-Dimethylethanolamine Alcohols
2,3-Dimethyl-3-pentanol Ketones
Dimethylsulfoxide Sulphurous compounds, org.
1,4-Dioxan Alcohols
Diphenylacetaldehyde Aldehydes
Diphenylamine Amines
Diphenyl ether Ethers
Disodiumhydrogenphosphate-12-hydrate Inorganic compounds
1-Dodecanol, dodecyl alcohol, lauryl alcohol Hydrocarbons
1-Dodecene Alcohols
Ephedrine hemihydrate Alcohols
1,2-Epoxybutane, 1,2-Butylene oxide Amines
Epoxy powder Polymers, plastics
Epoxy styrene Ethers
Ethanol Alcohols
Ethyl acetate, acetic acid ethyl ester Esters of carboxylic acids
Ethyl acetoacetate, Acetoacetic acid ethyl ester Esters of carboxylic acids
Ethyl acetoacetate, Acetoacetic acid ethyl ester Ketones
Ethyl-4-aminobenzoate, Benzocaine Amines
Ethylenediamine, 1,2-Diaminoethane Amines
Ethylene glycol Alcohols
Ethylene glycol dimethyl ether Ethers
2-Ethyl-1-hexanol Ketones
Ethyl methyl ketone, 2-Butanone Ketones
Ferrous perchlorate Inorganic compounds
2-Fluoroacetophenone Alcohols
2-Fluoroethanol Alcohols
Formic acid Carboxylic acids
Fumaric acid, trans-butene acid Carboxylic acids
Glutaric acid, pentanedioic acid Carboxylic acids
Glutathione Sulphurous compounds, org.
Glycerine, Glycerol, 1,2,3-Propantriol Alcohols
Glycerine monostearate Alcohols
Glycerine monostearate Esters of carboxylic acids
Glycine Carboxylic acids
Glyoxal, Ethanedial Aldehydes
Guaiacol Ethers
Guaiacol Phenols
2-Heptanol Sulphurous compounds, org.
Hexachlorobenzene Halogenated hydrocarbons
1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-propanol Halogenated hydrocarbons
Hexamethyldisilazane Amines
2,5-Hexanedione Alcohols
2,5-Hexanedione Amines
1-Hexanol, hexyl alcohol Hydrocarbons
1-Hexene Halogenated hydrocarbons
Hippuric acid Carboxylic acids
concentrated hydrochloric acid Inorganic compounds
Hydroquinone Phenols
Hydroquinone monomethyl ether Ethers
Hydroquinone monomethyl ether Phenols
Hydroxybenzaldehyde Aldehydes
Imidazole Amines
Iodine benzene Halogenated hydrocarbons
1-Iodine butane, Butyl iodide Halogenated hydrocarbons
1-Iodine docecane, Dodecyl iodide Halogenated hydrocarbons
1-Iodine hexane, Hexyl iodide Halogenated hydrocarbons
1-Iodine octane, Octyl iodide Halogenated hydrocarbons
1-Iodine pentane, Pentyl iodide Halogenated hydrocarbons
1-Iodine propane, Propyl Iodide Amines
1-Iodine propane, Propyl Iodide Ketones
Isoamyl alcohol, isopentanol Alcohols
Isobutanol Alcohols
Isohexane Hydrocarbons
Kerosene Hydrocarbons
Lactic acid Carboxylic acids
L-cysteine Sulphurous compounds, org.
Levulinic acid ethyl ester, 4-Oxopentane acid ethyl ester Esters of carboxylic acids
Levulinic acid ethyl ester, 4-Oxopentane acid ethyl ester Ketones
L-Glutamine Carboxylic acids
L-Histidine Carboxylic acids
Lime ammonium nitrate Inorganic compounds
Liquid petroleum gas Hydrocarbons
L-Proline Carboxylic acids
Magnesium chloride Inorganic compounds
Maleic acid Carboxylic acids
Malic acid Carboxylic acids
Malonic acid Carboxylic acids
2-Mercaptoethanol Ethers
3-Mercaptopropane-1,2-diol Alcohols
Mercaptopropionic acid Sulphurous compounds, org.
Methanol Alcohols
4-Methoxybenzaldehyde, anisaldehyde Alcohols
2-Methoxynaphthalene Amines
Methyl cyclopentane Hydrocarbons
Methyl ethyl ketone, 2-Butanone Ketones
1-Methylimidazole Ethers
1-Methylimidazole Phenols
Methyl isobutyl ketone Ketones
Methyl methacrylate, methacrylic acid methyl ester Esters of carboxylic acids
3-Methyl-3-pentanol Ketones
2-Methylpiperidine Carboxylic acids
2-Methylpiperidine Ketones
Methyl propyl ketone, 2-Pentanone Ketones
1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone Amines
Mineral oil Hydrocarbons
Morpholine Amines
m-Toluidine, 3-Aminotoluene Amines
n-Amyl alcohol, 1-Pentanol Alcohols
1-Naphtol, 1-Hydroxynaphthalene Alcohols
n-Decane Hydrocarbons
n-Heptane Hydrocarbons
n-Hexane Hydrocarbons
Nicotinic acid, 3-pyridinecarboxylic acid Carboxylic acids
concentrated nitric acid Inorganic compounds
4-Nitrobenzyl alcohol Carboxylic acids
4-Nitrobenzyl alcohol Sulphurous compounds, org.
N,N-Diethylhydroxylamine Amines
n-Pentane Hydrocarbons
o-Anisidine Amines
Octanal, Caprylaldehyde Aldehydes
1-Octanol Hydrocarbons
3-Octanone Alcohols
3-Octanone Amines
1-Octene Alcohols
Oleic acid Carboxylic acids
Oleum Inorganic compounds
Oxalic acid dihydrate Carboxylic acids
2-Oxobutanoic acid Alcohols
Paraffin Hydrocarbons
Pentafluorobenzene Halogenated hydrocarbons
1,5-Pentanediol Halogenated hydrocarbons
2-Pentanol Alcohols
Perchloric acid 0,1 mol/L in acetic acid Carboxylic acids
Perchloric acid 0,1 mol/L in acetic acid Inorganic compounds
Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Phenol Alcohols
Phenol Phenols
Phenol urea formaldehyde resins Polymers, plastics
2-Phenoxyethanol, Ethylenglycolmonophenylether Alcohols
1,2-Phenylenediamine Alcohols
1-Phenyl-1,2-ethandiol, Phenylethyleneglycol Alcohols
1-Phenylethanol Alcohols
2-Phenylpropanol Alcohols
Phenyl-2-pyridyl ketone, 2-Benzoylpyridine Amines
Phenyl-2-pyridyl ketone, 2-Benzoylpyridine Ketones
concentrated phosphoric acid Alcohols
Phthalic acid Carboxylic acids
Piperazine hexahydrate Amines
Piperidine Amines
3-Piperidinol, 3-Hydroxypiperidine Aldehydes
Polyamide Polymers, plastics
Polycarbonate Polymers, plastics
Polyethylene glycol 1000 Alcohols
Polyethylene glycol 400 Alcohols
Polymethylmethacrylates Polymers, plastics
Polystyrene (EPS) Polymers, plastics
Polyurethane glues Polymers, plastics
Polyvinyl acetate Polymers, plastics
Potassium dihydrogen fluoride Inorganic compounds
Potassium fluoride Inorganic compounds
1,2-Propanediol, propylene glycol Ethers
2-Propanol, isopropyl alcohol Amines
1-Propanol, propyl alcohol Alcohols
1-Propanol, propyl alcohol Amines
Propionaldehyde Aldehydes
Propionic acid, propanoic acid Carboxylic acids
2-Propylamine Amines
2-Propylamine dissolved in 2-Propanol Alcohols
1,2-Propylene oxide Ketones
2-Propynyl-1-ol, Propargyl alcohol Amines
2-Propynyl-1-ol, Propargyl alcohol Ketones
Pyridine Amines
Pyrocatechol, 1,2-Dihydroxybenzene Alcohols
Pyrocatechol, 1,2-Dihydroxybenzene Phenols
Pyrrolidine Amines
2-Pyrrolidone, Butyrolactam Amines
2-Pyrrolidone, Butyrolactam Ketones
Pyruvic acid Carboxylic acids
Pyruvic acid Ketones
Resorcinol dimethyl ethyl ether Ethers
Salicylaldehyde Aldehydes
Salicylic acid Carboxylic acids
Salicylic acid Phenols
Silica gel Inorganic compounds
Sodium chloride Inorganic compounds
Sodium methylate Alcohols
Sodium tert-butoxide Alcohols
Squalene Hydrocarbons
Stearic acid Carboxylic acids
Stearyl alcohol, 1-Octadecanol Alcohols
Succinic acid Carboxylic acids
concentrated sulfuric acid Inorganic compounds
5-Sulphosalicylic acid dihydrate Aldehydes
Tartaric acid Carboxylic acids
Terephthalic acid Carboxylic acids
Tert-butanol, 2-Methyl-2-propanol Alcohols
tert-Butylamine Amines
Tetrahydrofuran Ethers
Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol Alcohols
Thioglycolic acid Sulphurous compounds, org.
Titriplex III Inorganic compounds
Toluene Hydrocarbons
Transformer oil Hydrocarbons
2,2,2-Tribromoethanol Alcohols
Trichloroacetic acid Carboxylic acids
1,1,1-Trichloroethane, Methyl chloroform Halogenated hydrocarbons
2,2,2-Trichloroethanol Alcohols
Trichloroethylene Halogenated hydrocarbons
1,1,2-Trichlorotrifluoroethane Ketones
Triethanolamine Alcohols
Triethanolamine Amines
Triethylamine Amines
Triethylenediamine Amines
Trifluoroacetic acid Carboxylic acids
2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol Alcohols
Trioxane Ethers
Tripropylene, Propylene trimer Hydrocarbons
Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane Alcohols
Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane Amines
Turpentine oil Hydrocarbons
Vinyl acetate, acetic acid vinyl ester Esters of carboxylic acids
Xylene Hydrocarbons


Application Name Group
Chocolate spread Cosmetics
Cinnamon leaf oil Cosmetics
Extracts, Aqueous drops Cosmetics
Fusel oils Cosmetics
Hair spray Cosmetics
Mascara Cosmetics
Miglyol, Neutral oil Cosmetics
Moisturising lotion Cosmetics
Moisturizer Cosmetics
Oil of lemmons Cosmetics
Oil of oranges Cosmetics
Oil of tangerines Cosmetics
Polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) Cosmetics
Shampoo Cosmetics
Shaving foam Cosmetics
Shower gel Cosmetics
Styling gel Cosmetics
Sunblock cream (water resistant) Cosmetics
Toothpaste Cosmetics


Application Name Group
Ammonium nitrate Foodstuffs
Butanoic acid Foodstuffs
Cetyl alcohol, 1-Hexadecanol Foodstuffs
Cheese Foodstuffs
Chlorotriphenylmethane, Triphenyl chloromethane Foodstuffs
Chocolate Foodstuffs
Chocolate spread Foodstuffs
Cinnamon leaf oil Foodstuffs
Citric acid Foodstuffs
Confectionery Foodstuffs
Cranberry juice powder Foodstuffs
D(-)-fructose Foodstuffs
D(+)-galactose Foodstuffs
D(+)-glucose-monohydrate Foodstuffs
D(+)-lactose-monohydrate Foodstuffs
D(+)-maltose-monohydrate Foodstuffs
D(+)-mannose Foodstuffs
Dry fruits Foodstuffs
D(-)-sorbit Foodstuffs
Fish oil Foodstuffs
Fusel oils Foodstuffs
Gelatine Foodstuffs
Honey Foodstuffs
Ice Cream Foodstuffs
Jam Foodstuffs
L(+)-arabinose Foodstuffs
Liquorice Foodstuffs
L(-)-sorbose Foodstuffs
Mannitol, D-Sorbitol, Dulcitol Foodstuffs
Margarine Foodstuffs
Marjoram Foodstuffs
Marzipan Foodstuffs
Mashed potatoes Foodstuffs
Mayonnaise Foodstuffs
Milk Foodstuffs
Molasses Foodstuffs
Noodles Foodstuffs
Nutmeg Foodstuffs
Oil of lemmons Foodstuffs
Oil of oranges Foodstuffs
Oil of tangerines Foodstuffs
Oleic acid Foodstuffs
Oregano Foodstuffs
Palm oil Foodstuffs
Peanut oil Foodstuffs
Pepper Foodstuffs
Pepper Foodstuffs
Polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) Foodstuffs
Potato chips Foodstuffs
Powdered milk Foodstuffs
Rice Foodstuffs
Saccharose (adherent moisture) Foodstuffs
Saccharose (combined, total water) Foodstuffs
Shrimps Foodstuffs
Soft cheese Foodstuffs
Sour Cream Foodstuffs
Sugar Foodstuffs
Sunflower oil Foodstuffs
Sweets Foodstuffs
Thyme Foodstuffs
Toast Foodstuffs
Tobacco Foodstuffs
Wine gums Foodstuffs
Yoghurt Foodstuffs

Petroleum Products

Application Name Group
Benzaldehyde Petroleum products
Benzylacetone, 4-Phenyl-2-butanone Petroleum products
Biodiesel Petroleum products
Crude oil Petroleum products
Diesel fuel Petroleum products
Engine oil (with additives) Petroleum products
Heavy fuel Petroleum products
Kerosene Petroleum products
Liquid petroleum gas Petroleum products
Lube oil Petroleum products
Mineral oil Petroleum products
Petrolene Petroleum products
Petroleum Petroleum products
Tar Petroleum products
Transformer oil Petroleum products


Application Name Group
Acetophenone Pharmaceuticals
Anisole, methoxybenzene Pharmaceuticals
Caproic acid Pharmaceuticals
Carbon tetrachloride, Tetrachloromethane Pharmaceuticals
Castor oil Pharmaceuticals
Erythromycin Pharmaceuticals
Esomeprazole Pharmaceuticals
Extracts, Aqueous drops Pharmaceuticals
Lyophilisates Pharmaceuticals
Miglyol, Neutral oil Pharmaceuticals
Ointments Pharmaceuticals
Polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) Pharmaceuticals
Suppositories Pharmaceuticals
Paracetamol tablet Pharmaceuticals
Tablets Pharmaceuticals

Technical Products

Application Name Group
Acrylic acid Technical products
Alanine Technical products
Dimethyl carbonate, carbonic acid dimethyl ester Technical products
Epoxy styrene Technical products
Lime ammonium nitrate Technical products
Oils (on an ester basis) Technical products
Propylene carbonate Technical products
Silica gel Technical products
Silicone oil Technical products
Synthetic enamel Technical products
Tensides Technical products